In the south of Slovakia, between the towns of Nitra and Levice, there are four WWER 440/V-213 pressurised water reactors of Mochovce NPP with the power of 470 MW each.
The Unit 1 have supplied electricity to the grid since the summer of 1998, the Unit 2 since late 1999. Their gross power output was up-rated from 440 to 470 MW per each unit. Two Mochovce NPP Units deliver roughly 7 million MWh of electricity annually that is over one quarter of Slovakia's electricity demand.
Construction of Units 3 and 4 in in the final stage and the reactors shall be put in operation at the end of 2020 or 2021 respectively.
The Mochovce units have passed through a design evolution with a number of improvements evaluated and approved by Slovak and international experts, and meet all international nuclear safety standards.
|20 000 BC
Inhabited by humans, stone axe found
|1 259 AD
First written mention of a settlement called Mohi
Start of construction works
at Mochovce NPP – ground works
Start of construction works on Mochovce NPP unit 1 and 2
Start of construction works on Mochovce NPP unit 3 and 4
Replacement of the instrumentation and control system
Halt of the construction works
Re-start of conrtruction works on unit 1 and 2
Commissioning of unit 1
Commissioning of unit 2
Enel acquired 66 % of Slovenské elektrárne
Unit 1 and 2 installed output increased to 107%
Start of the Mochovce NPP 3&4 completion project
|Number of units||2|
|Reactor type||VVER 440/V 213 - tlakovodný|
|Reactor heat capacity||1 471 MWt|
|Reactor rated output||470 MWe|
|Self-consumption||35 MW (7.2 % of the rated output)|
|Reactor pressure vessel|
|- internal diameter||3 542 mm|
|- wall thickness||140 + 9 mm|
|- height||11 805 mm|
|- weight (less internals)||215 150 kg|
|- material||Cr-Mo-V steel|
|- number of cooling loops||6|
|- coolant flow rate||42 600 m3/h|
|- operating pressure||12,26 MPa|
|- reactor output coolant temperature||297,3 °C|
|- reactor input coolant temperature||267,9 °C|
|- core temperature drop||29°C|
|- overall volume||242 m3|
|- number of operating fuel assemblies||312|
|- number of control fuel assemblies||37|
|- total fuel assemblies||349|
|- core fuel weight||42 t|
|- fuel used||UO2|
|- medium fuel enrichment||4,87 % U235|
|Steam-generator||6 per unit|
|- PG type||V-213|
|- amount of steam generated||450 t/h|
|- steam output pressure||4,61 MPa|
|- steam output temperature||255 °C|
|- feed water temperature||222 °C|
|- weight||169 t (less suspensions)|
|Turbo-generator||2 per unit|
|- ŠKODA type||220 MWe|
|- number of stages||1 high-pressure, 2 low-pressure|
|- rated rotational speed||3 000 rpm|
|- generator rated apparent output||250 MVA|
|- terminal voltage||15,75 kV|
|- rated current||3 x 9 500 A|
|- amount of cooling water||35 000 m3/h|
|- maximum cooling water temperature||33 °C|
|Number of towers||4|
|Bottom diameter||88.54 m|
|Upper diameter||56.6 m|
|Pool diameter||98.36 m|
|4 hydro-accumulators||70 m3 each|
|- water volume||40-50 m3|
|- nitrogen volume||20-30 m3|
|- overall barbotage well capacity||13 800 m3|
|- 4 capture chambers for gases with a capacity||16 140 m3|
|- 12 barbotage throughs||1 380 m3|
|- pump capacity||65 m3/h|
|- outlet pressure||13,5 MPa|
|- pump capacity||800 m3/h|
|- outlet pressure||0,72 MPa|
|- pump capacity||380-520 m3/h|
Nuclear power plants in Slovakia emit no greenhouse gas to the atmosphere during operation, except for water aerosol released from cooling towers, hence contributing to annual CO2 emission reduction by 15 million tonnes.
Nuclear power plants thus contribute significantly to the obligation of reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and carbon neutrality by 2050. Slovenske elektrarne supplied 92.5% of electricity from low-carbon sources in 2019, and the figure will even increase after commissioning of the Mochovce NPP Units 3&4.
Mochovce NPP meets all national and international environmental requirements and its operation environmental impact is minimal. Water needed for cooling is taken from a water dam on the nearby Hron river, which has sufficient flowrate even in extremely dry months. Impact of effluents discharged from the power plant site on the Hron river water quality, fauna and flora is practically negligible.
Atmospheric emissions and hydrosphere effluents are regularly measured and evaluated in the 15-km area around the plant. There are 40 monitoring stations (19 on site and 21 off-site) of a tele-dosimetry system, which continuously monitor dose rate of gamma radiation, volume activity of aerosols and radioactive iodine in the air. Moreover, samples of soil, ground water and food chain (feed, milk, agricultural products) are regularly analysed, too. The volume of radioactive substances contained in liquid and gaseous discharges is considerably lower than the limits set out by authorities. Monthly reports of releases into environment are available in the section Publications.
In addition to common communal wastes, operation of nuclear power plants also produces a small amount of radioactive wastes. One unit annually produces approx. 13 m3 of liquid and 15 tonnes of solid low-level radioactive wastes. Such wastes need to be treated and safely disposed of, so that they were isolated from the environment. Liquid radioactive wastes are treated right at Mochovce, solid radioactive wastes at Bohunice treatment centre. Compacted wastes in fibre-concrete containers are then transported and stored at the National radioactive waste repository at Mochovce. Treatment and disposal of radioactive wastes is a capacity of the state-owned company JAVYS.
Every year during a general outage, one fifth of the fuel is replaced in the reactor (i.e. 66-72 of 349 fuel rods), that is around 8 tonnes of uranium. Spent fuel rods are cooled down for 5 to 6 years in a pool next the reactor and then they are transported into the interim spent fuel storage at Jaslovske Bohunice, which is operated by JAVYS. The spent fuel is stored in water pools there. Water provides excellent shielding preventing the leak of radioactivity into environment. Further energy use of the spent fuel is assumed in the future using new technologies.
Civic Information Committee (CIC) of Mochovce is an independent information channel for information transfer between nuclear facility operators at Mochovce and population living around. Establishment of the Committee was inspired by good practice from some countries, where similar committees had been established on voluntary or legislative basis.
The Mochovce CIC was established on 1 January 2005 and consists of representatives of the public (mayors) who are independent from nuclear operators and active in public life. The Committee members are the following: Regional association of municipalities Mochovce, Slovenske elektrarne and JAVYS.
The purpose of the Committee is to lead open dialogue with the public about peaceful use of nuclear energy and transfer qualified and current information about nuclear developments to the public, taking into account the right of citizens to be informed truly and immediately about all aspects construction and operation of nuclear facilities, safety and environmental impact of the nuclear facilities though the delegated representatives of the public.
For more information about the Association of municipalities Mochovce and Civic Information Committee see www.zdruzeniemochovce.sk.